England wales prognose
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They later set up a Squatters Estate Agency which received national media coverage. Political Squatting in Brighton — present. The curator commented that "While millionaires leave 'spare' houses empty for months on end and Tesco buy up land to be left vacant indefinitely, so called public space continues to diminish.
By opening buildings to the public to make and share art, squatters create temporary autonomous spaces that radically refute this logic. In , it was estimated that there were 15, squatters in England and Wales.
According to statistics compiled by the Empty Homes Agency in , the most empty homes in the UK were in Birmingham 21, , Leeds 24, Liverpool 20, and Manchester 24, The OKasional Cafe in Manchester began in and periodically created short-term autonomous spaces including cafes.
The Gallery in Leytonstone, East London is a multidisciplinary art gallery. Artist Matthew Stone from the!
Temporary Autonomous Art, run by a group called Random Artists, is a series of squatted exhibitions which have been occurring since Groups have also squatted land as community gardens.
In Reading, a garden called Common Ground was opened in Raven's Ait , an island in the River Thames, was occupied in The squatters declared their intention to set up an eco conference centre.
The eviction of these squatters took place on 1 May by police using boats and specialist climbing teams. Grow Heathrow is a squatted garden and part of the Transition Towns movement.
It was raided by Metropolitan Police before the marriage of Prince William and Kate Middleton in April , although the police denied any link to the wedding.
Later in , the perceived eviction of the Telepathic Heights squat in Stokes Croft in Bristol led to riots. When the Government announced its plans to criminalise squatting, protests were launched across the UK and SQUASH Squatters Action for Secure Homes was reformed it was first set up to fight previous plans regarding criminalisation in the mids with a presentation at the House of Commons.
As a result of the criminalisation of squatting in residential buildings, a group calling themselves The Gremlins in October resisted eviction of Spin Bowling in Cardiff from bailiffs and police.
The group covered their faces with scarves and masks, posting on Bristol Indymedia claiming; "The state tries to make people homeless, anarchists have no sympathy for the state and its lackeys.
They were seen on the roof and were believed to be from the group, after a post on the Gremlin Alley Twitter account. Managing Director and Chairman of the Association of Letting and Management Agents, Mr Vidler, said "It's distressing because I have items in there which are part of our business" , concerned it would cost a lot of money to remove them.
Since the legal battle, Keylet plans to actively support tackling homelessness, believing "homelessness in Cardiff and the UK needs urgent attention.
Historically, there is a common law right known as "adverse possession" to claim ownership of a dwelling after continual unopposed occupation of land or property for a given period of several years or more, depending on the laws to a particular jurisdiction.
UK laws allow for adverse possession claims range after 10 to 12 years, depending on if the land is unregistered.
In practice, adverse possession can be difficult. The law of adverse possession was fundamentally altered following the passing of the Land Registration Act In effect, after 10 years of actual physical possession, a squatter may apply to the Land Registry to have their title recognised as the owner in fee simple.
However the original titled owner of the property, who will be notified by the Land Registry of the change in ownership, has the right to defeat the application by way of objection.
Section 6 of the Criminal Law Act covers the occupation of property. The Act was implemented to stop slum landlords forcibly evicting tenants as was the case with the notorious London landlord Peter Rachman in the ss , and made "violence for securing entry" an offence.
People who squatted in buildings would often put up a "Section 6" legal notice on the front door. It warned anyone — even the actual owner of the property — who tried to enter the building without lawful permission that they would be committing an offence.
In September , the law was changed making trespass in a residential building with the intention of permanently residing a criminal offence.
Although a Section 6 warning still applies for non-residential buildings. These terms are defined in sections 12 and 12A. Such people may legally enter an occupied property even using force as the usual section 6 provision does not apply to them, and may require "any person who is on [their] premises as a trespasser" to leave.
Failure to leave is a criminal offence under section 7 and removal may be enforced by police. In , the Civil Procedure Rules introduced new processes for civil repossession of property and related processes, under section These include a fast track process whereby the legally rightful occupier can obtain an interim possession order IPO in a civil court which will enable them to enter the premises at will.
Det finns dock högland i norr till exempel bergiga Lake District , Pennines och Yorkshire Dales och i sydväst till exempel Dartmoor och Cotswolds.
Ängs- och betesmarker finns utanför storstäderna. Den romerska provinsen Britannia , motsvarande England och Wales, var en av Romerska rikets keltiska provinser.
De överlevande bland den keltiska befolkningen drog sig mot Wales och deras namn för England är Lloegr , vilket betyder det förlorade landet medan engelsmännens ord Welsh walesare betyder utlänning.
England erövrade Wales under talet och blev det definitivt en integrerad del av Konungariket England.
I vissa sammanhang fortsatte dock Wales att kallas för furstendöme. Genom bland annat en stark flotta som byggdes upp av Elisabet I av England under talet började England utvecklas till en världsmakt.
England var under denna tid även i personalunion med Skottland, under den skotska dynastin av huset Stuart. I och med detta upphörde de engelska och skotska parlamenten och ersattes av det brittiska parlamentet i London.
Den brittiske kungen var även kung över Irland och ingick man ett nytt unionsfördrag som skapade det Förenade konungariket Storbritannien och Irland.
By its height in , Wales was producing almost 61 million tons of coal. As well as in south Wales, there was also a significant coalfield in the north-east of the country, particularly around Wrexham.
Historian Kenneth Morgan described Wales on the eve of the First World War as a "relatively placid, self-confident and successful nation".
Output from the coalfields continued to increase, with the Rhondda Valley recording a peak of 9.
A total of , Welshmen served in the war, representing The first quarter of the 20th century also saw a shift in the political landscape of Wales.
Since , the Liberal Party had held a parliamentary majority in Wales and, following the general election of , only one non-Liberal Member of Parliament, Keir Hardie of Merthyr Tydfil , represented a Welsh constituency at Westminster.
After economic growth in the first two decades of the 20th century, Wales' staple industries endured a prolonged slump from the early s to the late s, leading to widespread unemployment and poverty in the south Wales valleys.
The 20th century saw a revival in Welsh national feeling. Plaid Cymru was formed in , seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK.
Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg The Welsh Language Society was formed in , in response to long-held fears that the language might soon die out. By the end of the s, the regional policy of bringing businesses into disadvantaged areas of Wales through financial incentives had proven very successful in diversifying the industrial economy.
It was believed that the foundations for stable economic growth had been firmly established in Wales during this period; but this view was shown to be wildly optimistic after the recession of the early s saw the collapse of much of the manufacturing base that had been built over the preceding forty years.
The governments of the United Kingdom and of Wales almost invariably define Wales as a country. Although we are joined with England by land, and we are part of Great Britain, Wales is a country in its own right.
However, the Prince of Wales has no constitutional role in modern Wales. But he does not have a role in the governance of Wales, even though his title might suggest that he does.
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Wales held a referendum in and chose to establish a form of self-government.
The consequent process of devolution began with the Government of Wales Act , which created the National Assembly for Wales Welsh: Members AMs ACau are elected for four-year terms under an additional member system.
Forty of the AMs represent geographical constituencies , elected under the First Past the Post system. The remaining 20 AMs represent five electoral regions , each including between seven and nine constituencies, using the d'Hondt method of proportional representation.
Labour remained the largest Assembly party following the election , winning 26 of the 60 seats. Under the 'One Wales' agreement, a referendum on giving the Welsh assembly full law-making powers was promised "as soon as practicable, at or before the end of the assembly term in " and both parties have agreed "in good faith to campaign for a successful outcome to such a referendum".
Welsh Labour remained the largest party in the Assembly following the National Assembly for Wales election, , winning 30 of the 60 seats.
Other parties represented in the assembly were the Welsh Conservatives the loyal opposition with 14 seats, Plaid Cymru who have 11 seats and the Welsh Liberal Democrats with five seats.
Carwyn Jones remained First Minister following the election, this time leading a Welsh Labour ministerial team. After the May election, Labour continues to form the largest group in the Assembly, with 29 AMs.
The twenty areas of responsibility devolved to the Welsh Government, known as "subjects", include agriculture, economic development, education, health, housing, local government, social services, tourism, transport and the Welsh language.
The GoWA allows for the Assembly to gain primary lawmaking powers on a more extensive range of matters within the same devolved areas if approved in a referendum.
A referendum on extending the law-making powers of the National Assembly was accordingly held on 3 March It asked the question: Consequently, the Assembly is now empowered to make laws, known as Acts of the Assembly , on all matters in the subject areas, without needing the UK Parliament's agreement.
Nevertheless, the Welsh Assembly has deployed their own envoy to America, primarily to promote Wales-specific business interests.
For the purposes of local government, Wales has been divided into 22 council areas since These "principal areas"  are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environment and roads services.
Wales has six cities. By tradition, Welsh Law was compiled during an assembly held at Whitland around by Hywel Dda , king of most of Wales between and his death in The 'law of Hywel Dda' Welsh: Cyfraith Hywel , as it became known, codified the previously existing folk laws and legal customs that had evolved in Wales over centuries.
Welsh Law emphasised the payment of compensation for a crime to the victim, or the victim's kin, rather than punishment by the ruler.
English law has been the legal system of England and Wales since ,  although there is now a growing body of contemporary Welsh law following Welsh devolution.
English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive.
The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases.
The Senior Courts of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. Minor cases are heard by the Magistrates' Courts or the County Court.
From that point, Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single jurisdiction of England and Wales.
The Welsh Assembly has the authority to draft and approve laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales.
Under powers approved by a referendum held in March , it is empowered to pass primary legislation known as Acts of the Assembly in relation to twenty subjects listed in the Government of Wales Act such as health and education.
Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Government can then also enact more specific secondary legislation. Wales has no women's prisons; female inmates are imprisoned in England.
Wales is a generally mountainous country on the western side of central southern Great Britain. Much of Wales' diverse landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions.
The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest outside the s is Aran Fawddwy , at metres 2, feet , in the south of Snowdonia.
The highest point being Pumlumon at metres 2, feet. Wales has three national parks: Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and Pembrokeshire Coast.
Forty two percent of the coastline of south and west Wales is designated as Heritage Coast , with 13 specific designated strips of coastline maintained by Natural Resources Wales successor body to the Countryside Council for Wales.
On the night of 25 October , over ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales when a hurricane blew in from the Atlantic. The first border between Wales and England was zonal, apart from around the River Wye, which was the first accepted boundary.
The Seven Wonders of Wales is a list in doggerel verse of seven geographic and cultural landmarks in Wales probably composed in the late 18th century under the influence of tourism from England.
Snowdon the highest mountain , the Gresford bells the peal of bells in the medieval church of All Saints at Gresford , the Llangollen bridge built in over the River Dee , St Winefride's Well a pilgrimage site at Holywell in Flintshire , the Wrexham Wrecsam steeple 16th-century tower of St Giles' Church, Wrexham , the Overton yew trees ancient yew trees in the churchyard of St.
The earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian , takes its name from the Cambrian Mountains , where geologists first identified Cambrian remnants.
The older rocks underlying the Cambrian rocks in Wales lacked fossils which could be used to differentiate their various groups and were referred to as Pre-cambrian.
In the midth century, two prominent geologists, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick who first proposed the name of the Cambrian period , independently used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology.
The next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician and Silurian , were named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area based on Murchison's and Sedgwick's work.
Wales lies within the north temperate zone. It has a changeable, maritime climate and is one of the wettest countries in Europe. Average annual coastal temperatures reach It becomes cooler at higher altitudes; annual temperatures decrease on average approximately 0.
The ocean current, bringing warmer water to northerly latitudes, has a similar effect on most of north-west Europe.
As well as its influence on Wales' coastal areas, air warmed by the Gulf Stream blows further inland with the prevailing winds.
At low elevations, summers tend to be warm and sunny. Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing.
The sunniest time of year tends to be between May and August. The south-western coast is the sunniest part of Wales, averaging over hours of sunshine annually.
Wales' sunniest town is Tenby , Pembrokeshire. The dullest time of year tends to be between November and January. The least sunny areas are the mountains, some parts of which average less than hours of sunshine annually.
Coastal areas are the windiest, gales occur most often during winter, on average between 15 and 30 days each year, depending on location. Inland, gales average fewer than six days annually.
Rainfall patterns show significant variation. Snow falls several times each winter in inland areas but is relatively uncommon around the coast.
Wales' wildlife is typical of Britain with several distinctions. Because of its long coastline, Wales hosts a variety of seabirds.
The coasts and surrounding islands are home to colonies of gannets , Manx shearwater , puffins , kittiwakes , shags and razorbills.
The larger Welsh mammals died out during the Norman period, including the brown bear, wolf and the wildcat. The pine marten which has had the occasional sighting, has not been officially recorded since the s.
The polecat was nearly driven to extinction in Britain, but hung on in Wales and is now rapidly spreading. Feral goats can be found in Snowdonia.
The waters of south-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine animals, including basking sharks , Atlantic grey seals , leatherback turtles, dolphins , porpoises , jellyfish, crabs and lobsters.
Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion, in particular, are recognised as an area of international importance for bottlenose dolphins , and New Quay has the only summer residence of bottlenose dolphins in the whole of the UK.
River fish of note include char , eel , salmon , shad , sparling and Arctic char , whilst the Gwyniad is unique to Wales, found only in Bala Lake.
The north facing high grounds of Snowdonia support a relict pre-glacial flora including the iconic Snowdon lily — Gagea serotina — and other alpine species such as Saxifraga cespitosa , Saxifraga oppositifolia and Silene acaulis.
Wales also hosts a number of plant species not found elsewhere in the UK including the spotted rock-rose Tuberaria guttata on Anglesey and Draba aizoides  on the Gower.
Over the last years, Wales has been transformed first from a predominantly agricultural country to an industrial, and now a post-industrial economy.
From the middle of the 19th century until the post-war era, the mining and export of coal was a dominant industry. At its peak of production in , nearly , men and women were employed in the south Wales coalfield , mining 56 million tons of coal.
In the late s and early s, Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment in the UK. The Welsh landscape protected by three national parks and 45 Blue Flag beaches , as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas.
The pound sterling is the currency used in Wales. Numerous Welsh banks issued their own banknotes in the 19th century.
The last bank to do so closed in ; since then, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland continue to have the right to issue banknotes in their own countries, the Bank of England has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Wales.
However, Wales has not been represented on any coin minted from The A55 expressway has a similar role along the north Wales coast, connecting Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire.
It also links to north-west England, principally Chester. The main north-south Wales link is the A , which runs from Cardiff to Llandudno.
Cardiff Airport is the only large and international airport in Wales. Other internal flights operate to northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Government manages those parts of the British railway network within Wales, through the Transport for Wales Rail train operating company. Cardiff Central is Wales' busiest railway station, with over four times as much passenger traffic as any other station in Wales.
Beeching cuts in the s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel connecting with the Irish Sea ports for ferries to Ireland.
All trains in Wales are diesel-powered since no lines have been electrified. Wales has four commercial ferry ports. Regular ferry services to Ireland operate from Holyhead , Pembroke and Fishguard.
The Swansea to Cork service, cancelled in , was reinstated in March , but has been withdrawn again in A distinct education system has developed in Wales.
The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such as Ruthin , Brecon and Cowbridge. At the end of the day, the wearer of the "not" would be beaten.
The University College of Wales opened in Aberystwyth in Cardiff and Bangor followed, and the three colleges came together in to form the University of Wales.
The Welsh Department for the Board of Education followed in , which gave Wales its first significant educational devolution. In —, there were 1, maintained schools in Wales.
Historically, Wales was served by smaller 'cottage' hospitals, built as voluntary institutions. A History of Wales.
The population of Wales doubled from , in to 1,, in and had reached 2,, by Most of the increase came in the coal mining districts, especially Glamorganshire , which grew from 71, in to , in and 1,, in However, there was also large-scale migration into Wales during the Industrial Revolution.
The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of other ethnic groups,   including Italians , who migrated to South Wales.
Many of these self-identify as Welsh. The census showed Wales' population to be 3,,, the highest in its history.
The UK census was criticised in Wales for not offering 'Welsh' as an option to describe respondents' national identity. Respondents were instructed to "tick all that apply" from a list of options that included Welsh.
The outcome was that No Welsh national identity was indicated by The proportion giving their sole national identity as British was No British national identity was indicated by The census showed Wales to be less ethnically diverse than any region of England: The lowest proportion of White British The proportion born in Wales varies across the country, with the highest percentages in the south Wales valleys and the lowest in mid Wales and parts of the north-east.
The total fertility rate TFR in Wales was 1. In his work Archaeologia Britannica Edward Lhuyd , keeper of the Ashmolean Museum , noted the similarity between the two Celtic language families: He argued that the Brythonic languages originated in Gaul France and that the Goidelic languages originated in the Iberian Peninsula.
Lhuyd concluded that as the languages had been of Celtic origin, the people who spoke those languages were Celts. According to a more recent hypothesis, also widely embraced today, Goidelic and Brythonic languages, collectively known as Insular Celtic languages , evolved together for some time separately from Continental Celtic languages such as Gaulish and Celtiberian.
From the 18th century, the peoples of Brittany , Cornwall , Ireland , Isle of Man , Scotland and Wales were known increasingly as Celts, and they are regarded as the modern Celtic nations today.
The Bible translations into Welsh helped to maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The Welsh Language Act and the Government of Wales Act provide that the English and Welsh languages be treated on a basis of equality, and both are used as working languages within the National Assembly.
Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales and is known by various terms, though none is recognised by professional linguists.
It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh. According to John Davies, Wenglish has "been the object of far greater prejudice than anything suffered by Welsh".
The Census showed , people, Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where place names differ in the two languages, both versions are used e.
Under new regulations that came into force in , the Welsh Language Commissioner requires local authorities and Welsh Government to ensure that all new or renewed road signs that use both languages to feature the Welsh language first.
During the 20th century, a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than Welsh or English, such as Bengali or Cantonese , established themselves in Wales as a result of immigration.
The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with The Presbyterian Church of Wales was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Wales, with 24, 0.
There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs , mainly in the south Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion.
The remnants of the native Celtic mythology of the pre-Christian Britons was passed down orally, in much-altered form, by the cynfeirdd the early poets.
Wales can claim one of the oldest unbroken literary traditions in Europe. The Poets of the Princes were professional poets who composed eulogies and elegies to the Welsh princes while the Poets of the Gentry were a school of poets that favoured the cywydd metre.
Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits.
Major developments in 19th-century Welsh literature include Lady Charlotte Guest's translation of the Mabinogion, one of the most important medieval Welsh prose tales of Celtic mythology, into English.
The 20th century experienced an important shift away from the stilted and long-winded Victorian Welsh prose, with Thomas Gwynn Jones leading the way with his work Ymadawiad Arthur.
Though the inter-war period is dominated by Saunders Lewis , for his political and reactionary views as much as his plays, poetry and criticism.
Thomas was one of the most notable and popular Welsh writers of the 20th century and one of the most innovative poets of his time.
The attitude of the post-war generation of Welsh writers in English towards Wales differs from the previous generation, in that they were more sympathetic to Welsh nationalism and to the Welsh language.
The change can be linked to the nationalist fervour generated by Saunders Lewis and the burning of the Bombing School on the Lleyn Peninsula in , along with a sense of crisis generated by World War II.
Thomas — was the most important figure throughout the second half of the twentieth century. While he "did not learn the Welsh language until he was 30 and wrote all his poems in English",  he wanted the Welsh language to be made the first language of Wales, and the official policy of bilingualism abolished.
The major novelist in the second half of the twentieth century was Emyr Humphreys Born near Abergavenny , Williams continued the earlier tradition of writing from a left-wing perspective on the Welsh industrial scene in his trilogy " Border Country " , "Second Generation" , and "The Fight for Manod" He also enjoyed a reputation as a cultural historian.
The National Museum [of] Wales was founded by royal charter in and is now a Welsh Government sponsored body. In April , the attractions attached to the National Museum were granted free entry by the Assembly, and this action saw the visitor numbers to the sites increase during — by Aberystwyth is home to the National Library of Wales , which houses some of the most important collections in Wales, including the Sir John Williams Collection and the Shirburn Castle collection.
Many works of Celtic art have been found in Wales. A number of illuminated manuscripts from Wales survive, of which the 8th-century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels are the most notable.
The 11th-century Ricemarch Psalter now in Dublin is certainly Welsh, made in St David's , and shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence.
The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16th—18th centuries tended to leave the country to work, many of them moving to London or Italy.
Richard Wilson —82 is arguably the first major British landscapist. Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London.
By the late 18th century, the popularity of landscape art grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland.
Artists from outside Wales were also drawn to paint Welsh scenery, at first because of the Celtic Revival. Then in the early 19th century, the Napoleonic Wars preventing the Grand Tour to continental Europe, travel through Wales came to be considered more accessible.
An Act of Parliament in provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom and the Cardiff School of Art opened in Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but Betws-y-Coed became a popular centre for artists and its artists' colony helped form the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art in Christopher Williams , whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London.
Stephens and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists based respectively in the United States and France.
Many Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe. However, the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world.
Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff and even after moving to London. He was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism.
The Kardomah Gang was an intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes.
South Wales had several notable potteries , one of the first important sites being the Ewenny Pottery in Bridgend , which began producing earthenware in the 17th century.
It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in George which then represented the Kingdom of England and Wales. The daffodil and the leek are both symbols of Wales.
The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd George.
The red kite is a national symbol of Welsh wildlife. The Prince of Wales' heraldic badge is also sometimes used to symbolise Wales.
The badge, known as the Prince of Wales's feathers , consists of three white feathers emerging from a gold coronet. A ribbon below the coronet bears the German motto Ich dien I serve.
Several Welsh representative teams, including the Welsh rugby union, and Welsh regiments in the British Army the Royal Welsh , for example use the badge or a stylised version of it.
The Prince of Wales has claimed that only he has the authority to use the symbol. Land of My Fathers is the National Anthem of Wales, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Wales national team as well as the opening of the Welsh Assembly and other official occasions.